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Second part: the cycle of matter

37

The emergence of continents

(1) Before the precambrian, just before the illumination of the Sun, the ground of the Earth wasn't completely flat. It had some asperities which could be the edges of cirques formed following the burst of domes lifted by gases, or some heights of volcanic origin, or yet the mountainous folds that we find on satellites. The Earth thus went away into the precambrian where it covered itself with water. Only the crests of these asperities were emerging.

Process of emergence of lands

(2) Until the end of the precambrian, the core had risen in temperature and had heated the mantle accordingly. But far from the Sun, the Earth was in the deep cold which froze the water, probably from one pole to the other. Therefore, the cold outside eventually reached the warm and deep layers of the mantle. It then contracted on itself, bringing forth the first expanses of lands according to the process that we evoked previously and as shown here:

Principles of succesive additions of earth
49 – Principles of succesive additions of earth

(3) This illustration can represent the formation of an island from a volcano or an emerged crest, or even the formation of a continent, it all depends on the dimensions we give it. But it is the principle of the shrinkages of the layers that is important. For the formation of the heights, which dug the basins as a consequence, was done from hard points that emerged, or from the crests around which these successive additions of earth happened, represented by the numbered arrows.

(4) These additions increased each time the emerged area. Because, when a first retraction occured around the hard emerged part, it had for effect to uncover the neighboring parts, which were necessarily much warmer, which in turn contracted. The process of emergence was then engaged. And the additions of earth continued until the phenomenon dissapeared. It resulted from it an expanse which could be a large island or a continental plateau.

(5) It is evident however that, depending on the conditions, these additions of earth could be made regularly around an emerged point, or more on one side than the other side, or even all on one side like a snowdrift. If the first contractions that took place from these hard and often rangy points were a few meters per kilometers, the following ones a little less and less and less, it was enough to bring out the hills and dig the basins where the land was taken. This however is to be considered as a tiny phenomenon compared to the size of the planet.

Aspect of the digging of basins
50 – Aspect of the digging of basins

(6) This simplified image shows us how the emergence of lands dug the basins in consequence at the beginning of the primary era. Because of the shrinkages, we already understand that the original fault which separates both continents will be forced to evolve, as we shall examine. But this figure, in addition to the previous one, already gives a much better idea of the formation of the relief.

The configuration of the continents

(7) Certainly, the first emerged lands did not yet have the configuration and the relief that they have today, because it's the second glacial period which gave it to them. However, there were already some vast expanses under the Sun at the beginning of the primary epoch and substantial basins.

(8) Therefore, we understand that the continents emerged on the spot, where they are, and that it is the two periods of intense glaciation which are responsible for it. We will come back to this, because we cannot grasp at once what happened throughout the movements of the Earth.

(9) When we observe the terrestrial globe today, we can see that the expanse of water is much bigger than the emerged parts of the continents, and that these continents often have shapes which seem fit together if we bring them closer. Why is this so? The answer is in the figure which represents the original division of the continental caps, division which took place long before the beginning of the precambrian and the arrival of the water on earth.

(10) However, to better enlighten you on the current shape of the continents, listen and understand! If with our hands we dig a sinuous trench in the sand at the seaside (this is comparable to an ancient fault delimiting the continental caps) and from it we make a valley by spreading out the sand on each side, we obtain two mounds of sand on either side of the valley having necessarily the same sinuosity. Let's suppose that the sea rises and lets appear only the summit of these mounds having the sinuosity of the valley. We notice then that these two edges, even very distant from each other, necessarily have identical shapes which can be embedded.

(11) Well, this is exactly for the same reasons of the trenches (fault) and land spread (shrinkage of the layers) on either side of this trench, that the continents sometimes have similar contours, which can marry together. This is the case, for example, for the African and American continents on either side of the Atlantic basin which separates them and in the center of which we find an ancient fault, which have become a ridge, as we shall see.

(12) These explanations mean, once again, that continents appeared where they are today. They emerged slowly at the beginning of the primary and almost completely at the beginning of the tertiary during the great glaciations. Thus remove from your mind that the continents are drifting because, although the mantle moves a little as it develops, they cannot drift.

The formation of ridges

(13) These faults we are talking about, which are the original ground fractures delimiting the caps before the illumination of the Sun, opened deeper and deeper through the ages. It was so, because of the intense shrinkages of the two glacial periods, and because of the growth of the core which has never stopped. These faults lines of the ground gradually became the ridges that we find at the bottom of the basin in the form of mountainous ranges.

(14) Indeed, these tears were soon found by the gases, then invaded by the lava which, pressed by the weight of the basins filled with water, rose back to the surface. We can compare this to a sheet of paper partially torn in the middle that we would place on some muddy fluid and on which we apply pressure: the mud would go back up throughout the tear and would solidify as it dried. Thus, we would have made a ridge which is like a mountainous range; because the pressure exerted on the sheet of paper is comparable to the pressure applied by the weight of the ocean which brings up the lava to the surface. As it solidifies, this lava then welds both lips of the tears and blocks the continents between them. This is obviously the very opposite of what the geologists are teaching, because the lava can have no other force than that which causes it to rise. It can therefore absolutely not move the continents as they claim it and even less make them wrinkle into the distance, in their emerged parts where they are thicker and stiffer! Isn't it evident?

(15) The development of the earth's core, which occurred during the eras, exerted tensions between the continental caps. To these slow tensions, were added those due to the rapid shrinkage of layers during the glacial periods, which dug the basins by making the continents to emerge. This allows us to understand perfectly how well a fault that delimits two continental caps evolved. This evolution, illustrated here below, also shows us that the basins deepened throughout the ages, by localizing more and more water on the faults, on both sides of them.

Evolution of a fault through the eras
51 – Evolution of a fault through the eras

(16) As we saw with the example of the torn sheet that is pressed on the mud, the pressure exerted on the bottom, both by the weight of the water, by the growth of the core, and by the shrinkages, forces the magma to rise up through the cracks. Although these probably did not reach it on the day they were formed, the gases were responsible for opening paths for it. Going back up through the faults and then hardening on contact with water, this magma had gradually formed the underwater mountain ranges called RIDGES. Under the effects of the tensions which continued to be exerted in the layers of the bottom of the basins, these ridges broke in several places, giving the impression of having been sheared.

The distancing of continents

(17) Like a person who doesn't grow indefinitely, the Earth will cease to grow in the ages. But since it was born and as long as it develops, the continents are slowly moving away from each other from the ridges. To what can we compare this phenomenon? If we inflate a supple sphere on which we have drawn some dots, we see these dots are moving away from one another being under the effect of the increase in volume. That's why continents are moving apart, because the earth is still growing and will continue to do so as long as the solar activity will allow it. Know therefore to understand that continents have definitely emerged where they are today.

(18) Even if the core of a celestial body made three turns on itself while its mantle would make only one, ther could be no drift of the continents, because they lean against each other. In order for them to drift, they would have to be separated by wide seas of magma reaching the core. But, even in this case, the magma would solidify at it cools down and would block all the continents again between them...

Ocean trenches

(19) Since the basins widened during the emergence of the continents, the traction exerted directly on the ridges became less and less strong along the eras, because the adhesion of the layers to the magma was happening on a larger surface. We can compare this to a large blanket that we would lay down on the mud. The larger and heavier the blanket would be (weight of the ocean), the more it would adhere to the mud. Thus, it would be difficult to pull it to oneself by its edges which would eventually tear apart. This is what happened to the edges of the basins which, during the last major shrinkages, sometimes gave way in several places. It then engendered the ocean trenches at the foot of the mountains which border them.

Formation of trenches and ocean cliffs
52 – Formation of trenches and ocean cliffs

(20) These trenches, as seen here, are former points of rupture formed at the beginning of the tertiary, and which continue to open in the depth under the effect of the growth of the core. This is why the Earth often trembles at the edge of the basins, because any new breakage of the rocky layer engenders a new earthquake.

(21) The image above shows both the magma, the mantle, a ridge, the heights, as well as an ocean trench. Because of the intense cooling which the Earth has been subjected to, the mountainous chains which border the basins are much stiffer than the sea bed layers which, having never been exposed to very low temperatures, remained suppler. It then turns out that it is at the junction of the marine layers with those of the surface that the tractions often produce their ruptures and consequent earthquakes. But these breaks don't always occur because, when the bottom layers at the bottom of a basin are under tension and stretch and become thinner, this can only cause a slight sinking of the edges of the basin, but nothing more. So, afterward, one could assume that the sea level rose by engulfing houses or other traces of human presence. This can be noticed in several countries bordering the Great Sea.

(22) As the core gradually grows, the waters recede while uncovering more and more lands in some places. Which sometimes has the effect of recealing the wall of the ocean trench, that is to say an abrupt cliff. But to get a better picture of all these phenomena, one can imagine that if a giant hand would press on the bottom of the Mediterranean sea, it would necessarily produce breaks all around the basin whith earthquakes. But this pressure, which would be felt down to the magma, would also have the effect of provoking the eruption of the surrounding volcanoes.

(23) Because the continents are still distancing themselves from each other, the mediterranean basin (that we take as an example) is similar to a mouth which opens, and the tension of the layer at the bottom is frequent. This sometimes varies the sea level, provokes earthquakes in the surrounding areas when the rock layers break, and engender volcanic eruptions.

(24) Being linked, all these phenomena can occur simultaneously. Because, besides the ruptures in the rocky layers and the resulting earthquakes, the pressure which is suddenly exerted on the magma can provoke the ascent of the latter through he bordering volcanoes and make the cork of those that are clogged burst. It is therefore appropriate to expect this kind of manifestations at all times. Once we will have explained the volcanism, it will appear to you that the disasters are only due to men who crowd together in places where the common sense commands not to do so. Pompeii remembers this...

Terrestrial trenches

(25) We have seen that continents are caps of a weak thickness which can be broken in their emerged parts (harder and thicker) when they are too large in relation to the curvature of the core which is constantly developing. As a whole, the emerged parts of the continents are almost completely rigid over a good thickness. However, the previous tensions produced by the growth of the core or by the successive coolings of the mantle, sometimes created ruptures inlands, and often in the rigid parts of mountains. These ancient ruptures (which also formed the immersed faults), became canyons and gorges through which the waters flow.

(26) If it is only a single rock layer which ruptures, it produces a single earthquake. But if it is a succession of layers that yield to the same force, it creates repetitive tremors, which can be compared to a handful of twigs bent together, which would break one after another.

(27) Thus enriched with this new knowledge, which allowed us to grasp all the formations and understand that there was never any continental drift, we can glance through the eras to see what occurred successively throughout the snake.

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