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Second part: the cycle of matter


The emergence of continents

(1) Before the precambrian, just before the illumination of the Sun, the ground of the Earth wasn't completely flat. It had some asperities which could be the edges of bowl-shaped depressions formed following the burst of domes lifted by gases, or some heights of volcanic origin, or yet the mountainous folds that we find on satellites. The Earth went into the precambrian where it covered itself with water. Only the crests of these asperities were emerging.

Process of emergence of lands

(2) Until the late precambrian, the core had risen in temperature and had warmed the coat accordingly. But far from the Sun, the Earth was in a deep cold which froze water, probably from one pole to the other. Therefore, the outside cold eventually reached the warm and deep layers of the coat. It then contracted on itself, bringing forth the first expanses lands according to the process that we evoked previously and as shown here:

Principles of succesive intake of land
49 – Principles of succesive intake of land

(3) This illustration can represent the formation of an island from a volcano or an emerged crest, or even the formation of a continent, it all depends on the dimensions we give it. But the principle of shrinkages of the layers is important. Because the formation of the heights which dug basins in consequence, made from emerged hard points, or from crests around which happened these successive additions of earth, represented by the numbered arrows on the figure.

(4) These additions increased each time the emerged area. Because, when a first contraction occured around the hard emerged part, it had for effect to uncover the neighboring parts necessarily much warmer, which in turn contracted. The process of emergence was then engaged. And the additions of the earth continued until the fainting of this phenomenon. It resulted from it an expanse which could be a large island or a continental plateau.

(5) It is evident however that, depending on the conditions, these additions of earth could regularly be made around an emerged part, or more on one side than the other side, or yet all on one side like a snowdrift. If the first contractions that were made from these hard and often rangy points were of few meters per kilometers, the following a little less and less, this was enough to bring out the hills and to dig the basins where the land was taken. However is to be considered as a small phenomenon compared to the size of the planet.

Aspect of the digging of basins
50 – Aspect of the digging of basins

(6) This simplified image shows how the emergence of lands dug basins in consequence at the beginning of the primary era. Because of the shrinkages, we already understand that the original fault that separates both continents will be forced to evolve, as we shall examine. But this figure, added to the previous one, already give a much better idea of the formation of the relief.

The configuration of the continents

(7) Certainly, the first emerged lands had not yet the configuration and the relief that they have today, because it's the second glacial period that gave it to them. However, there were already some vast expanses under the Sun at the beginning of primary epoch and substantial basins.

(8) Therefore, we understand that the continents emerged on the spot, here where they are, and they are the two periods of intense glaciation which are responsible for it. We will come back, because we cannot grasp at once what happened throughout the movements of the Earth.

(9) When we observe the terrestrial globe today, we see that the expanse of water is bigger than the emerged parts of the continents, and these continents have very often forms and shapes which fit together if we bring them closer. Why is it so? The answer is in the figure which represents the original division of the continental caps, division which was done well before the beginning of the precambrian and the arrival of the water on earth.

(10) However, to enlighten you better on the current shape of the continents, listen and understand! If with our hands we dig a sinuous trench in the sand at the seaside (this is comparable to an ancient fault bounding the continental caps) and from it we make a valley by spreading out the sand on each side, we obtain two mounds of sand on either side of the valley having necessarily the same winding. Let's suppose that the sea rises and lets appear only the summit of these mounds with the sinuosity of the valley. We notice then that these two edges, even very distant from each other, have necessarily identical shapes which can be embedded.

(11) Well, this is exactly for the same reasons of the trenches (fault) and land spread (shrinkage of the layers) on both sides of this trench, that continents sometimes have similar contours, which could marry together. What is the case, for example, for the African and American continents on both sides of the Atlantic basin which separates them and the center of which we find an ancient fault, became a dorsal, as we shall see.

(12) These explanations mean, once again, that continents appeared where they are today. They emerged slowly at the beginning of the primary and almost completely at the beginning of the tertiary during the great glaciations. Thus remove from your mind that the continents are drifting because, although the coat moves a little as it develops, they cannot drift.

The formation of dorsals

(13) These faults we are talking about, which are the original ground fractures delimiting the caps before the illumination of the Sun, opened more and more deeply through ages. It was like so, because of the intense contractions of two glacial periods, also because of the growth of the core which has never stopped. These faults lines of the ground became gradually the dorsals that we find at the bottom of the basin in the form of mountainous ranges.

(14) Indeed, these tears were soon found by the gases, then invaded by lava which, pressed by the weight of the basins filled with water, went back to the surface. This can be compared to a sheet of paper partially torn in the middle that we would place on some muddy fluid and on which we apply pressure: the mud would go back up throughout the tear and would solidify as it dries. Thus, we would have a dorsal which is like a mountainous range; because the pressure exercised on the sheet of paper is comparable to the pressure applied by the weight of the ocean which bring up the lava to the surface. In solidifying, this lava then welds both lips of the tears and blocks the continents between them. This is obviously the opposite of what the geologists are teaching, because the lava cannot have any other strength than the one causing its ascent. Therefore it cannot move the continents as they claim it and yet to make them wrinkle into a distance, from their emerged parts where they are thicker and stiffer! Isn't it evident?

(15) The development of the earth's core, which occurred during the eras, exercised tensions between the continental caps. At these slow tensions, were added those due to rapid shrinkages of layers during the glacial period, which dug basins and making emerge the continents. This allows us to understand perfectly how well evolved a fault which delimits two continental caps. This evolution, illustrated here below, shows us that the basins were dug throughout the ages, by locating always more water on the faults, on both sides of them.

Evolution of a fault through the eras
51 – Evolution of a fault through the eras

(16) As we saw with the example of the torn sheet that we press on the mud, the pressure exercised at the bottom, by both the weight of water, and by the growth of the core, and by the shrinkages, obliges the magma to rise through the cracks. Although these ones have probably not reached the day they formed, the gases are responsible to open to it the channels. Going back up through the faults and then hardening on contact with water, this magma had gradually formed the underwater mountain ranges called DORSALS. Under the effects of a constant tensions being exercised upon the bottom layers of the basins, these dorsals broke at several places, giving the impression of having been sheared.

The spacing of continents

(17) Like a person who doesn't grow indefinitely, the Earth will cease to grow in the ages. Since it was born and as it keeps developing, the continents slowly move away from each other from the dorsals. To what can we compare this phenomenon? If we inflate a supple sphere on which we marked some dots, we see these dots are moving away from one another being under the effect of the increased volume. That's why continents move away, because the earth is still growing and will do for as long as the solar activity will allow it. Know thus understand that continents have emerged where they are.

(18) Even if the core of a celestial body would make three rounds on itself while its coat only one, the continental drift could not happen, because they are supporting one another. In order that they could derive, they would have to be separated by wide seas of magma reaching the core. But, even in this case, the magma would solidify by cooling and would block again all continents between them...

Ocean trenches

(19) Since the basins widened during the emergence of the continents, the traction exerted directly on the dorsals became less and less strong along the eras, because the adherence of the layers on the magma was happening on a larger surface. We can compare this to a large blanket that we would lay down on the mud. The more the blanket would be large and heavy (weight of the ocean), the more it would adhere to the mud. Thus, it would be difficult to pull it to self from its edges which would eventually tear a part. This happened for the edges of the basins which, during the last major shrinkages, sometimes gave away in several places. It then engendered the ocean trenches at the foot of the mountains which line them.

Formation of trenches and ocean cliffs
52 – Formation of trenches and ocean cliffs

(20) These trenches, as seen here, are former points of rupture formed at the beginning of the tertiary, and continue to open in the depth and as a result of the growth of the core. This is why the Earth often trembles on the edge of the basins, because any new breakage of the rocky layer engenders a new earthquake.

(21) The image above shows at once the magma, the coat, a dorsal, the heights, as well as an ocean trench. Because of the intense coolings whose the Earth was the object, the mountainous chains which border the basins are much stiffer than the sea bed layers which, having never been exposed to a very low temperature, remained more suppler. It turns out that it is at the junction of the marine layers with those of the surface that tractions often produce their break and consequently earthquakes. But these breaks don't always occur because, when the bottom layers of a basin are in tension and when they stretch and refine, this can only cause a light sinking of edges of this basin, nothing more. So, afterward, one could suppose that the sea level went up by engulfing houses or other traces of the human presence. What stands out in several waterside countries of the great Sea.

(22) As to the growth of the core, the waters recede by uncovering even more lands in some places. Which sometimes has for effect to let appear the wall of the ocean trench, that is to say an abrupt cliff. But to better represent ourselves these phenomena, one can imagine that if a giant hand would press the bottom of the Mediterranean sea, it would necessarily produce breaks all around the basin whith earthquakes. But this pressure, which would be felt till the magma, would also have the effect of provoking the eruption of the surrounding volcanoes.

(23) Because the continents are still moving away from each other, the mediterranean basin (that we take as an example) is similar to a mouth which opens, and the tension of the bottom layers is frequent. This sometimes varies the sea level, provokes earthquakes in the surrounding areas when the rock layers break, and engender volcanic eruptions.

(24) Being linked, all these phenomena can occur simultaneously. Because, besides the rupture of the rocky layers and the earthquakes which result, the pressure which is suddenly exercised on the magma can provoke the ascent of the latter by the bordering volcanoes and make burst the cork of those clogged. It is therefore appropriate to expect at all time this kind of manifestations. Once we have explained the volcanism, it will appear to you that the disasters are due only to men who crowd together in places where the common sense commands not to do so. Pompeii remembers it...

Land abysses

(25) We have seen that continents are caps of a weak thickness which can be broken in their emerged parts (harder and thicker) when they are too large in relation to the curvature of the core which continues to grow. Taken together, the emerged parts of the continents are almost completely rigid on a good thickness. However, the previous tensions produced by the growth of the core or by the successive coolings of the coat, sometimes created ruptures inlands, and often in the rigid parts of mountains. These former breaks (which also formed immersed faults), became canyons and gorges that waters borrow.

(26) If it is a single rock layer which ruptures, it produces a single earthquake. But if it is a succession of layers that yield to a same force, it creates repetitive tremors, which can be compared to a handful of twigs bent together, which would break one after another.

(27) So enriched with new knowledge, which enable us to grasp all the formations and understand that there has never been continental drift, we can glance through the eras to see what occurred successively throughout the snake.

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