(1) After determining the origin of the eras, and having grasped the words of Moses relating the creation according to these epochs, let us now examine what was the evolution of the relief. First recall that the core of the Earth has never cooled. On the contrary, since the illumination of the Sun, its activity has grown steadily. Its heating has increased accordingly, and this heat has spread into the coat. However, the snake reveals that the Earth has experienced two cold periods and a warm period which had each time an important impact on this coat. Indeed, it is these significant changes in temperature which formed the relief and brought the emergence of the continents.
(2) The relief is what protrudes on the surface of a celestial body. However, these protuberances or emergence are so small compared to the size of the Earth that we wouldn't feel the ruggedness of it if we could take it in our hand. So make sure to stay in the right proportions of what we are going to study.
(3) With the INTEGRATION and the DISINTEGRATION, which are together the origin and the principle of all existence, we have easily explained the formation of celestial bodies. Similarly, with the HEAT and the COLD, coming from the two previous movements of the matter, we will now demonstrate the formation of the relief and the continental evolution with all pertaining thereto.
(4) Any matter dilated by the heat shrinks on itself by cooling, as the wet land will shrink and cracks as it dries. We indeed know that the heat dilates the body and that the cold contracts it. Because of the temperature of the core, the coat which envelops it, is a hot body and dilated in its all, a body able to contract during a cooling, as would do the molten glass that we remove from the heat. But, shrinkages mean contractions, or movements of the matter which modify necessarily the relief of a celestial body. And this is what took place with the planets, in particular with the Earth which, during its comings and goings, constantly changed the temperature of its coat.
(5) By its weight and more or less significant infiltration in the top layers of the coat, the water took part in the formation of the terrestrial relief, without being the cause however. The causes are the three phenomena which occurred successively. The first phenomenon was consecutive to the development of the core and the shrinkages of the coat (before the precambrian) which made open faults more or less long and deep into the ground. And it is through these faults that gases and lava rose to the surface, gradually taking the shape of the marine and terrestrial volcanism that we know. The volcanism is the second phenomenon, because it is responsible for a major number of islands which appeared along these original faults, and along the formation of long mountainous chains provided of volcanoes, even extinct. The third phenomenon, is that starting from these hard peaks which partially emerged, undertook a long process of land added, a process due to the vast shrinkages of the top layers coat seized by the severe cold of two glacial periods. But first of all, let's bring our attention over the changes in temperature of the coat, then on its thickness at which we can estimate. We shall know then what took place on our planet since the illumination of the Sun.
(6) Having not left its ring, the core of the Earth remained hot throughout its history, whereas the coat, it, underwent with very important changes of outside temperature which have modified it accordingly. Effectively, we see with the snake that at the end of the precambrian the coat is more cooled by the outside that it heated of the interior. Which, for some time, lowered its temperature in almost half of its thickness.
(7) Unlike this period, throughout the primary, where the solar heat increased from day by day, and then the coat has warmed up more than it has cooled. What, for another time, has raised its temperature in all its thickness.
(8) Then, during the secondary, the very hot coat could only cool down along this era because, coming from the heat, the Earth went back into the cold. The temperature of the coat then dropped down again.
(9) Along the tertiary, the coat warmed up again, the Earth for its second time was approaching the Sun. Its temperature went up accordingly.
(10) And finally, in the quaternary where we are and where the Earth is stable, this time, the coat is cooling down from the outside as much as it warms up from the inside. What now maintains a constant temperature. Then we see that the terrestrial coat has encountered some drastic changes in temperature, which are necessarily responsible for the ground movements and, thus, the formation of the relief.
(11) From the centre of the ferronickel core, here's how must be observed the different states of the matter to the ground surface: the core is cold and stiff from the centre to the edge where it is very hot and fluid on a small thickness. Above the core, whose emanates an extremely high temperature, we find at first the coat fluid then viscous and then pasty (all on a small thickness), then supple, then firm, and finally rigid till the ground surface. The coat is thus connected with the core by a thin fluid layer.
(12) Produced essentially by the bottom (at the core level), the coat grows like skin. Its fluid part is the lava, its pasty and viscous part is the magma, and its firm part it is the rest of the coat. The knowledge we have on the melting show us that the fluid metal of the core, originating from the effect of electrical resistance, cannot exceed the height of the ankles of a man. Then, understanding how deep the matter of the coat can be fluid, and then viscous by this heat, we estimate its thickness at man's height only. And helped by the study of the birth and growth of the satellite, we estimated that the total thickness of the coat (from the fluid metal to the surface of the ground) cannot exceed about thirty kilometers in its greatest thickness, and probably a third of this dimension in its thinner parts.
(13) What else can make us appreciate the thickness of the coat? Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter were, quite like the Earth, satellites of the Sun before it lights up, and had a coat like any satellites. But these celestial bodies, which didn't move and whose heat constantly increased since the illumination of the Sun, are now changing their coat into vapors. That's why their atmosphere is gigantic.
(14) Thus, on the core of Neptune, when the time comes, it will be found directly molten metal only covered with oxides and slag. On Uranus, it will be similar; but at this moment, there is still a certain thickness of lava over the molten metal. On Saturn, it will be the same there, although at this moment there is a good thickness of viscous magma. And on Jupiter, where there is still a light grey but very hot crust over the magma, we shall conclude with the same results. If it isn't like that today, it will come. Because the intense electromagnetic activity of these celestial bodies obliges the disintegration of their coat.
(15) We also understand that the coat of these celestial bodies can't be very thick, otherwise it would isolate their core, and the heat of this last one would fail to reach the surface of the ground. In that case, and because of the very low temperature prevailing in their regions, there would be no giant atmosphere on these planets (this one would condense) but only ice on the ground. It shows us that if the coat of these celestial bodies isn't thick, the one on Earth can only be comparable in its dimensions.
(16) Besides, and always to grasp that the coat of the Earth can't exceed the evoked dimensions, let's turn this time towards the satellites and also towards the Moon which is the Earth's sister. The more the satellite is small, the less its coat is thick and conversely. On satellites thus, we observe large bowl-shaped depressions left by the bursting of gigantic domes raised by gases. As we shall study later, these domes appear even more gigantic as the satellites are small and active. It is obvious that their coat which is thin and still light, warm and supple, is easily up lifted in all their thickness by gases. The domes, so formed, are comparable to upset cups directly sitting on the magma. And, by their collapse, they leave a bowl-shaped depression and, at the bottom of it, a lake of lava which solidifies thus becoming dark.
(17) Such lakes of lava at the bottom of the bowl-shaped depressions are observed on the Moon. This is an indication that its coat is very thin and that this celestial body indeed has a core, otherwise where would this lava be coming from? For all these reasons, and although the terrestrial coat is thicker than the one on the Moon, it can't exceed the given dimensions. You can be certain. And our study of the volcanism will confirm it.
(18) Formerly, when the Earth was the satellite last-born of the planet Sun and necessarily quite close to this one, it had the current aspect of the Moon. But the mountains of the Earth weren't as big as those we notice on the Moon; because, contrary to this latter which has quickly and completely cooled down, the Earth, it, remained warm throughout its existence. Its ground was therefore also covered with bowl-shaped depressions: the biggest ones made by gases and the others by the fallout of stones, rocks and important blocks coming from the explosion of domes.
(19) Then, after the illumination of the Sun, the Earth continued its growth. Not having cooled off, and because of all the substances produced by the core, its coat grew accordingly and eventually reached the thickness that we evoke. We know now that this one has been subjected to some very important differences in temperature, and that it doesn't have three thousand kilometers in thickness as the insane claim it, but indeed a thickness hundred times lesser.
(20) We can now examine what was the real evolution of the relief. Let's understand first of all that the formation of stones isn't essentially due to the drying of the ground, but rather to its cooling and its contractions which occurred during two long glacial periods.
47 – Formation and movements of layers
(21) Here, simply illustrated the principle of heights formation which made evolved twice the relief and the emergence of continents. The left figure shows that the penetration of the deep cold cannot allow the coat to keep this uniform aspect. Indeed, as the cold gains the depths, the coat takes necessarily the aspect of the right figure just after its formation around the celestial body. We see here the shrinkage of the coat which contracts on itself from top to bottom, as well as the formation of the layers and a change of ground level.
(22) To facilitate the understanding of this phenomenon, there are only four layers which are distinctly represented, while many more have formed and of all thicknesses. However, you shouldn't confuse these layers with the multitude of small overlying layers that we see appearing on cliffs or sides of mountains; because these small layers were formed by the deposits left by the winds or by volcanoes, or yet by ceaseless diluvian rains that affected the ground at the beginning of the secondary. These sediments of different thicknesses were, also, seized by the last glacial period and often became rocky.
(23) On this simplified figure, the direction of the shrinkages shows that when the cold penetrates profoundly into the ground, the superior layer (A) already hardened and rocky doesn't retract any more, while the following one (B) can still do it a little; the one below (C) a little more; and the last one (D) even more, if however the cold reaches it. It is evident that what is contracted and rocky doesn't retract any more, and what isn't completely still can. It appears that if the layer (B) retracts, then (C), then (D), all the superior layers are successively raised by force. This has the effect of forming a plateau or a hill, or setting up a mountain or a mountainous chain. And this is exactly what happened on the Earth along the eras.
(24) These shrinkages, which provoked thickening and uprising, dug accordingly the basins where the land was taken. This means on all satellites and planets. However, these movements of contraction of these materials are of course proportional to the size of the celestial bodies, to the thickness of their coat, and to the changes in temperature according they were passengers like on the Earth or continuous and uniform as on the planets which cooled down constantly.
(25) I say that the variation of the temperature went from one extreme to the other (as was to the ends of the primary and of the secondary) did not happen on the Moon or on Mars which only knew a continuous cooling. Indeed, Mars and the Moon which so cooled down, although they were very warm, have seen their coat contracting rapidly throughout its entire thickness. This is why their mountains are proportionally bigger and higher than they are on earth.
(26) But, in order not to confound what we are studying with what geologists tell, just think that the coat isn't thick, and that continents are by no means constituted by plates adrift. No, what these men call the tectonic of plates and the continental drift, is pure invention! In fact the continents, bounded by small and shallow faults, are parts of land connected together forming a unique envelope surrounding the core, like a shell.
(27) Certainly, the coat forms a crust on its surface. But, overall, it's one and same matter which changes state and aspect according to the temperature. As we have already shown, at the contact with the heat of the core, this matter has a certain consistency which changes as we get closer to the ground surface where the temperature is much lower. Here is thus the origin of continents (because they have an origin) and what they really are in their thickness from the core.
48 – The original formation of the continental caps
(28) Our Earth is represented here at the start of precambrian (the second day), just before the passage of the solar nebula. In this era where it was going away in an intense cold, the coat could not cool down in all its thickness, since the nebula provided a protective coverage. But before this cloud does catch up, we notice that continents are already divided by fissures and they are since the Earth was in the first order, before the illumination of the Sun. This cutting is due to both the growth of the core and to the very low outside temperature in which the Earth evolved before the Sun shines and before the beginning of the eras.
(29) These faults are starts of breaks which will evolve significantly during the two glacial periods where contractions will be produced. Filled with fallen rocks of ice or dusts, they are often invisible, but nevertheless exist on the larger satellites of the planets which in their turn will become planets.
(30) We are talking about a metallic sphere, rigid and incompressible, which develops. Consequently, the crust of the coat cracks on surface and takes the appearance of a mosaic. The faults sometimes open deeply and over great lengths throughout the growth of the core, but they don't necessarily all meet. They however let appear land caps of different forms and surface areas which already are continents. For it is certain that continents, whose a big part emerges today, found existence in these times. They were thus never adrift as are those who like to claim it, but emerged there where they are. We are going to explain it because, for now, we only showed the principle of their division and how the relief was formed.