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Second part: the cycle of matter

36

The formation of the relief

(1) After determining the origin of the eras, and having grasped the words of Moses relating the creation according to these epochs, let us now examine what was the evolution of the relief. First of all, let us recall that the core of the Earth has never cooled down. On the contrary, since the illumination of the Sun, its activity has grown steadily. Its heating has increased accordingly, and this heat has spread into the mantle. However, the snake reveals that the Earth has experienced two cold periods and a warm period which both had an important impact on this mantle. Indeed, it was these significant changes in temperature which formed the relief and brought the emergence of the continents.

(2) The relief is what protrudes on the surface of a celestial body. However, these protuberances are so small compared to the size of the Earth that we wouldn't feel the roughness of it if we could take it in our hand. We must therefore be careful to stay in the right proportions of what we are going to study.

Principle of the relief formation

(3) With the INTEGRATION and the DISINTEGRATION, which together are the origin and the principle of all existence, we have easily explained the formation of celestial bodies. Similarly, with the HEAT and the COLD, coming from the two previous movements of the matter, we are now going to demonstrate the formation of the relief and the continental evolution with all pertaining thereto.

(4) Any matter dilated by the heat shrinks on itself as it cools down, just as the wet land will shrink and cracks as it dries. We indeed know that the heat dilates the body and that the cold contracts it. Because of the temperature of the core, the mantle which envelops it, is a hot and dilated body as a whole, a body able to contract when it cools down, like molten glass that is removed from the fire. But, shrinkages means contractions, or movements of matter which inevitably modify the relief of a celestial body. And this is what took place with the planets, and in particular with the Earth which, during its comings and goings, constantly changed the temperature of its mantle.

(5) By its weight and by its more or less significant infiltration in the top layers of the mantle, the water participates in the formation of the terrestrial relief, without being the cause however. The causes are three phenomena which occurred successively. The first phenomenon was consecutive to the development of the core and the shrinkages of the mantle (before the precambrian) which opened more or less long and deep faults into the ground. And it is through these faults that gases and lava rose to the surface, gradually taking the shape of the marine and terrestrial volcanism that we know. Volcanism is the second phenomenon, because it is responsible for the high number of islands which appeared along these original faults, and of the formation of long mountainous chains with volcanoes, even extinct ones. The third phenomenon, is that starting from these hard peaks which partially emerged, began a long process of land input, a process due to the vast shrinkages of the top layers mantle seized by the severe cold of the two glacial periods. But let's first look at what the changes in temperature of the mantle were, and then at the thickness at which it can be estimated. We will then know what happened on our planet since the illumination of the Sun.

(6) Having not left its ring, the core of the Earth has remained hot throughout its history, whereas the mantle, it, has undergone great changes in its external temperature which have modified it accordingly. Indeed, we can see on the snake that at the end of the precambrian the mantle cooled more from the outside than it heated from the inside. Which, for during a certain, lowered its temperature in almost half of its thickness.

(7) Contrary to this period, throughout the primary, where the solar heat increased from day to day, the mantle heated up more than it has cooled. This, for another time, has made it rise in temperature in all its thickness.

(8) Then, during the secondary, the very hot mantle could only cool down along this era because, coming from the heat, the Earth went back into the cold again. The temperature of the mantle then dropped down again.

(9) Along the tertiary, the mantle warmed up again, the Earth approaching the Sun a second time. Its temperature went up accordingly.

(10) And finally, in the quaternary where we are and where the Earth is stabilize, this time, the mantle is cooling down from the outside as much as it heats up from the inside. This now maintains its temperature constant. We see then that the terrestrial mantle has encountered some drastic changes in temperature, which are necessarily responsible for the ground movements and, thus, the formation of the relief.

The state of the core and the mantle

(11) Starting from the centre of the ferronickel core, here's how the various states of matter should be observed on the ground surface: the core is cold and rigid from the centre to the edge where it is very hot and fluid over a small thickness. Above the core, from which a high temperature rises, we find the mantle which is first fluid then viscous and then pasty (all over a small thickness), then supple, then firm, and finally rigid to the surface of the ground. The mantle is thus connected to the core by a thin fluid layer.

(12) Produced essentially from underneath (at the core level), the mantle grows like flesh. Its fluid part is the lava, its pasty and viscous part is the magma, and its firm part it is the rest of the mantle. The knowledge we have on the melting process show us that the fluid metal of the core, originating from the effect of electrical resistance, cannot exceed the height of the ankles of a man. Then, understanding how deep the matter of the mantle can be fluid, and then viscous by this heat, we estimate its thickness at man's height only. And helped by the study of the birth and growth of the satellite, it is estimated that the total thickness of the mantle (from the fluid metal to the surface of the ground) cannot exceed about thirty kilometers in its greatest thickness, and probably a third of this dimension in its thinner parts.

(13) What else can make us appreciate the thickness of the mantle? Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter were, quite like the Earth, satellites of the Sun before it was illuminated, and had a mantle like any other satellites. But these celestial bodies, which have not moved and whose heat constantly increased since the illumination of the Sun, are now changing their mantle into vapors. This is why their atmosphere are gigantic.

(14) Thus, on the core of Neptune, when the time comes, there will directly be the molten metal covered only with oxides and slag. On Uranus, it will be similar; but for the moment, there is still a certain thickness of lava over the molten metal. On Saturn, it will be the same, although at this moment there is a good thickness of viscous magma. And on Jupiter, where there is still a light grey and very hot crust over the magma, we will reach the same results. If it isn't yet like this today, it will come. Because the intense electromagnetic activity of these celestial bodies obliges the disintegration of their mantle.

(15) We also understand that the mantle of these celestial bodies can't be very thick, otherwise it would isolate their core, and the heat from the latter would fail to reach the surface of the ground. In this case, and because of the very low temperature prevailing in their regions, there would be no giant atmosphere on these planets (this one would condense) but only ice on the ground. This shows us that if the mantle of these celestial bodies isn't thick, the one of the Earth can only be comparable in its dimensions.

(16) Besides, and still to grasp that the mantle of the Earth can't exceed the dimensions mentioned, let's turn this time towards the satellites and also towards the Moon which is Earth's sister. The smaller the satellite is, the less its mantle is thick and vice versa. On the satellites thus, we observe large cirque left by the bursting of gigantic domes raised by the gases. As we shall study later, these domes appear even more gigantic as the satellites are small and active. For it goes without saying that their mantle which is still thin and light, warm and supple, is easily lifted in all their thickness by the gases. The domes, thus formed, are comparable to cups inverted directly on the magma. And, by their collapse, they leave a cirque and, at the bottom of it, a lake of lava which solidifies by becoming dark.

(17) Such lakes of lava at the bottom of the cirque are observed on the Moon. This is an indication that its mantle is very thin and that this celestial body has indeed a core, otherwise where would this lava be coming from? For all these reasons, and although the terrestrial mantle is thicker than that of the Moon, it can't exceed the given dimensions. Be sure of this. And our study of volcanism will confirm it.

(18) In the past, when the Earth was the last-born satellite of the planet Sun and necessarily quite close to this one, it had the current aspect of the Moon. But the mountains of the Earth weren't as big as those that we notice on the Moon; because, contrary to the latter which quickly and completely cooled down, the Earth, it, remained warm throughout its existence. Its ground was therefore also covered with cirques: the biggest ones made by the gases and the others by the fallout of stones, rocks and important blocks coming from the explosion of the domes.

The contractions of the mantle

(19) Then, after the illumination of the Sun, the Earth continued its growth. Not having cooled down, and because of all the substances produced by the core, its mantle grew accordingly and eventually reached the thickness that we are evoking. We know now that this one has been subjected to some very important differences in temperature, and that it is not three thousand kilometers in thickness as the fools claim it, but a thickness a hundred times lesser.

(20) We can now examine what was the real evolution of the relief. Let's understand first of all that the formation of rocks isn't essentially due to the drying of the ground, but rather to its cooling and its shrinkages which occurred during two long glacial periods.

Formation and movements of ground layers
47 – Formation and movements of layers

(21) Here, illustrated simply is the principle of heights formation which made the relief evolved twice and the continents emerge. The left figure shows that the penetration of the deep cold cannot allow the mantle to keep this uniform aspect. Indeed, as the cold reaches the depths, the mantle necessarily takes on the appearance of the figure on the right as soon as it forms around the celestial body. We see here the shrinkage of the mantle which contracts on itself from top to bottom, as well as the formation of the layers and the change of the ground level.

(22) To facilitate the understanding of this phenomenon, there are only four layers which are represented distinctly, whereas many more were formed and of all thicknesses. However, you shouldn't confuse these layers with the multitude of small overlying layers that we see appearing on the cliffs or the sides of mountains; because these small layers were formed by the deposits left by the winds or by volcanoes, or yet by the ceaseless diluvian rains that eroded the ground at the beginning of the secondary. These sediments of different thicknesses were, also, seized by the last glacial period and often became rocky.

(23) On this simplified figure, the direction of the shrinkages shows that when the cold penetrates deeply into the ground, the superior layer (A) already hardened and rocky doesn't retract any more, while the following one (B) may still do it a little more; the one below (C) a little more; and the last one (D) even more, if however the cold reaches it. It is evident that what is contracted and rocky doesn't retract any more, and what isn't completely retracted can still do so. It then appears that if the layer (B) retracts, then (C), then (D), all the upper layers are successively raised by force. This has the effect of forming a plateau or a hill, or erecting a mountain or a mountainous chain. And this is exactly what happened on the Earth along the eras.

(24) These retractions, which provoked thickening and upthrust, dug accordingly the basins where the land was taken. This means on all satellites and planets. However, these movements of contraction of these materials are both proportional to the size of the celestial bodies, the thickness of their mantle, and to the changes in temperature according to whether they were passengers as on the Earth or continuous and uniform as on the planets which cooled down constantly.

(25) I say that the variation of the temperature that went from one extreme to the other (as it was at the ends of the primary and of the secondary) did not happen on the Moon or on Mars which only experienced a continuous cooling. Indeed, Mars and the Moon which cooled in this way, while they were very hot, saw their mantle contracting rapidly throughout its entire thickness. This is why their mountains are proportionally bigger and higher than they are on earth.

The continental caps

(26) But, in order not to confuse what we are studying with what geologists say, we must think that the mantle isn't thick, and that continents are not made up of drifting plates. No, what these men call the tectonic plates and the continental drift, is just pure fantasy! For the continents, bounded by shallow faults, are parts of land connected together and forming a single envelope surrounding the core, like a shell.

(27) Certainly, the mantle forms a crust on its surface. But, as a whole, it's one and the same material which changes state and aspect according to the temperature. As we have already shown, in contact with the heat of the core, this matter has a certain consistency which changes as we get closer to the surface of the ground where the temperature is much lower. So here is thus the origin of the continents (because they have an origin) and what they really are in their thickness from the core.

The original formation of the continental caps
48 – The original formation of the continental caps

(28) Our Earth is represented here at the beginning of the precambrian (the second day), just before the passage of the solar nebula. In this era where it was going away in the intense cold, the mantle could not cool down in all its thickness, since the nebula provides a protective covering. But before this cloud catches up with it, we notice that the continents are already divided by fissures and have been since the Earth was in the first order, before the illumination of the Sun. This cutting is due both to the growth of the core and to the very low outside temperature in which the Earth evolved before the Sun shone and the beginning of the eras.

(29) These faults are the beginning of breaks which will evolve significantly during the two glacial periods when shrinkages will be produced. Filled with fallen rocks of ice or dusts, they are often invisible, but nevertheless exist on the largest satellites of the planets which in their turn will become planets.

(30) We are talking about a metallic sphere, rigid and incompressible, which develops. Consequently, the crust of the mantle cracks at the surface and takes on the appearance of a mosaic. The faults sometimes open deeply and over great lengths throughout the growth of the core, but they don't necessarily all meet. They however allow the appearance of caps of different shapes and surface areas which are already continents. For it is certain that the continents, a large part of which are emerging today, found existence in those times. They were thus never adrift as those who say they were, but emerged there where they are. We are going to explain this because, for the moment, we have only showed the principle of their division and how the relief was formed.

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