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Second part: the cycle of matter

39

The volcanism

(1) The time it took to form the solar family was much longer than the one which passed by since the Sun has been illuminated. The planets have evolved very little since then. This is why we can read through them what has been the evolution of volcanism which began at their birth. This reading is very important to complete the comprehension of the formations. Because it is impossible to know what is the volcanic activity by the only observations we make of it on earth. Let's then examine our planets in their initial context, when they were still active and warm. In this first order (before the illumination of the Sun), we most likely would find Pluto, the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, and the Earth; then the unknown planet, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Through these celestial bodies, we can also consider the evolution of a single one, each one being as a sequence of what it was in time.

The ground of the planets

(2) As far as volcanism is concerned, on the ground of the Moon and Mercury we only find craters. On the ground of Mars and Venus, there are similar craters and volcanoes. On Earth, craters are almost all erased by the successive shrinkages of the surface layers, only the extinct and active volcanoes remain. On Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune which have never ceased to raise their temperature, volcanism is unrestrained; the gigantism of their atmosphere proves it formally. These observations force us to deduce that volcanism (which is an eruption of gases, followed or not by magma) takes different aspects according to the period of evolution in which the celestial body is located.

(3) We also note that, among all the planets of the Sun, the Earth is most likely the one which has the thickest mantle. Indeed, the internal temperature of the planetstars has become too hot to increase the thickness of the materials which compose their mantle. This temperature, very high, tends on the contrary to transform these materials into gas, and therefore decrease the thickness of their mantle. On Earth, this is different; because the internal heat, which is lower, still allows the production of the materials of the mantle. This means that up to it, volcanism is one thing and after it (on the side of the planetstars), it's something else and much more intense.

The elements of volcanism

(4) Thus let's begin the study of volcanism with the formation of craters. After that we shall know what's the situation on our Earth. Let's first recall that before the illumination of the Sun, all the celestial bodies were more or less active. They had magma as a consequence and were all provided with an atmosphere formed by gas eruptions. As it has been explained, the mantle of the satellite develops progressively from the birth of the core. At first thin, it thickens in time. And for as long as it is hot and supple, it easily follows the growth of the core. Only its surface exposed to the cold is provided with a thin crust which cracks while letting some faults appear. Now, whatever the thickness and the consistency of the mantle, the gases produced in the magma, gain in pressure and come out at the surface in one way or another by leaving their imprints. This is what starts volcanism.

(5) The production of gases and their eruption are thus a matter of ebullition. And we only have to observe the Moon for this to appear to us. However, these ebullitions are at the measure of the celestial body, meaning extremely slow to our eyes. It was also the same for Mercury and for all celestial bodies when they were small and near the Sun where they quickly developed. On the Moon thus, we note that there are some very big cirques (called seas) which have low edges, smaller cirques and sometimes provided with a central peak, and some smaller ones, withouth such peaks. We also notice that the bottom of the cirques is very often covered with solidified lava, and that there are also multitudes of holes of all sizes made in the dust. We are going to study these formations, as well as the periods in the life of the satellites in which all this occurred.

(6) The flexibility and lightness of the mantle of the small satellites sometimes makes it more difficult for the gases to escape than does the thin surface crust which, full of cracks, lets them pass more freely. The pockets which are forming and leave their imprints after their collapse or bursting, are the result of a slow accumulation of gases under the layers of the mantle. To what can this be compared to? If we put a waterproof coverage on the entire surface of a small marsh from which gases would come up, these gases would progressively locate under the cover by forming small round swellings. Assuming that we leave this cover on this marsh for a long time, these pockets would eventually merge into a single and immense ones. This is why there are small, medium, and large craters; but also some very large ones, as the pockets manage to unite under the thin and light mantle of the satellites in contact of the magma itself.

(7) Another example: when we heat up some dough over the fire, we quickly notice the formation of small domes which burst, and then form again through the same gas conduit. Let's enlarge this phenomenon and imagine that we have a vast bowl filled with this dough. If we slowly bring this one to ebullition, outside in winter weather, we notice that the surface, quite colder, is covered with a tight skin. The gases rise up and form domes under this skin, in the manner of what we have seen on the marsh. These domes eventually burst or only collapse immediately after the gases have escaped through the top of the dome which has become thinner and torn. It is this example which really shows what the formation of the enormous domes of gases on a satellite is like and cirques that they leave on the ground after they burst or collapse.

(8) The smaller the satellite is, the more the layers of its mantle are thin, hot, supple, light and even lighter as on these small celestial bodies the weightiness is far more inferior than that prevails on Earth for example. The gases then have no difficulty in lifting them. If thus in contact with the magma of these small celestial bodies, there is a formation of a gas pocket (which can have more than hundred kilometers in diameter), while another one is formed as large just a little farther away, both can evenually join together. In this case, together they will form a single rounded dome which will coninu to grow and will be comparable to a bowl overturned over a liquid, but which can be up to a thousand kilometers in diameter.

(9) Due to the roundness of a small celestial body, such a pocket in formation will necessarily have a circular base. This one will be a little pronounced but very large vault, containing a large layer of gases whose pressure is not very high. Such a pocket can't grow indefinitely, but will do so until the roundness of the satellite opposes to it and stops it. Its dimensions are thus proportional to the circumference of the celestial body and to the maximum allowed by this circumference. This can give very large swellings which, when collapsing, leave a vast circular depression with low edges.

(10) Such gas pockets probably do not burst, but certainly collapse. This is so because, when the entire mantle is lifted from the magma and slowly lifted by the gases, the top of the vault becomes thinner and rips as it was said, revealing a gaping opening. The gases then escape through this opening. And the mantle then collapses onto the magma. As soon as it collapses, the lava rushes into the opening and spreads over the bottom of the cirque, then it solidifies. This is what we observe on the Moon.

(11) Subsequently, some much smaller craters may form in these large depressions called seas. However the gases will come out more easily outside of these seas whose bottom, compounded of solidified lava, is harder and stiffer than anywhere else. It is also because of this solidity that these circular seas are partially surrounded by high mountains. Indeed, their solid edges were used as attachment points to the large shrinkages of the hot layers that cooled completely during the upheaval. These are the circular seas that we observe today on the Moon and on the satellites of the same generation.

(12) The large cirques of the Moon, which formed during the period when it was very hot, can't have the same aspect as the smaller cirques appeared later. This is, because as it grew, its mantle thus became thicker, heavier and stronger. It was thus less hot overall, and the superior layers became firmer over a greater depth. This is a new type of volcanism, because the gases can no longer erupt so easily. They will indeed concentrate for a longer time under these layers which are more resistant. To form a dome a hundred kilometers in diameter for example, it may take them twice as long as it took them to form it when the celestial body was smaller and hotter.

(13) These last domes will be smaller and will explode violently this time, leaving long streaks in the dust in the neighbourhood of the cirques and in the center of which we will often notice a central peak. These long streaks, starting from some cirques, are necessarily the result of the explosion of a dome. Why is that? Because due to the lesser weightiness and of the small circumference of the satellite, violently projected rocks brush the surface of the ground over great distances. Their projections create whirlwinds in the atmosphere which lift the dust, leaving traces. It is these traces that we observe today around the last-born craters of the Moon. I reiterate that these craters were formed while the Moon, put into orbit around the Sun, still possessed its atmosphere.

Formation of a crater on planets
54 – Formation of a crater

(14) This figure illustrates how medium sized craters appeared on the satellites. The gases are first located under the layers of the mantle, in contact with the magma, and form a lower pocket in which they increase in pressure. When their pressure can no longer be contained, these gases pass through the mantle and go back up towards the surface until they meet the tighter superior layers that they cannot pass through. They then accumulate under these last layers and lift them with force. This forms a dome which will eventually burst violently.

(15) Why does a peak sometimes form in the center of the cirque? When the gases are stopped by the resisting superior layers, their pressure increases. This pressure also has the effect of keeping the magma pushed back under the mantle, on either side of the conduit. There are thus two chambers formed by the gases and connected between them: the superior chamber in the shape of a vault (under the surface layers) and the lower chamber (under the mantle) which keeps the magma at a distance. It is thus understandable that, as soon as the explosion of the superior chamber occurs, the magma, repelled until then, rushes into the conduit and floods the cirque by causing it to overflow. But when the rising lava has vanished, this lava still fluid tends to come down again through the conduit. And it is at this moment when it is less fluid, that it forms a peak above the conduit that it blocks.

(16) Whether this central peak occurs or doesn't occur, the conduit is bound to become blocked. But very often this conduit remains in the depth, as well as the lower chamber which collects the gases. In that case, these gases will accumulate again in the chamber and the conduit, and will repeat the same process over time. They will pass through the existing passage, will still localize on the surface and will then form a smaller cirque in the previous one. These repetitions of the formation of cirques within each other create what we call stepped craters, with or without a central peak. These steps are the edges of the domes which have successively burst.

(17) These bursts are the main cause of the abundant dust on the Moon. They are also the origin of many holes made in this dust by the rocks resulting from these bursts which fell down in large quantity. Due to the lower weightiness which reigns on the satellites, one third of the material of an exploding dome can be thrown into space, another third can be put into orbit and then fall back here and there on the ground, after the last third, formed by the biggest bodies, has already fallen. This will form small craters for some time, obviously devoid of a peak, because the falling bodies can't come in contact with the magma.

(18) Thus, thanks to the electromagnetic activity of the celestial bodies, we now know the origin of the craters of all dimensions, as well as the periods of the life of the celestial bodies in which they appeared. On the Moon, they have formed before it was intercepted by the Earth and, on Mars or Mercury, before they cooled down in their entire thickness.

(19) The craters being the first aspect of the volcanism, we should no longer believe that they are due to intense falls of meteorites, as it is taught by those who always take the consequences for the causes! We have just seen that the satellite itself produces the bodies which riddle its ground. A few meteorites from elsewhere may be part of the number, but it's insignificant. No, the large craters having regular edges and a flat bottom covered with solidified lava, are always the mark of gas eruptions. In order for the meteorites to have formed the celestial bodies and the craters that we observe on them, they would have had to have existed in space in a quantity which is beyond comprehension, and then all of them would have fallen concentrically, on a single point, which would have attracted them irresistibly... What would thus have been this point, and what would have been its composition to have such a power?

(20) On the other hand, on a hard ground, a meteorite cannot make cirques having regular edges and equal depth if it doesn't fall vertically (concentrically), but only an oblique hole. If they are said to have fallen on a pasty ground, it's similar. Furthermore, to form cirques several hundreds kilometers in diameter, these meteorites would have had to be colossal. However, such solid bodies, arriving faster than the flash of lightning, would necessarily have chased the satellites away from the celestial body to which they belonged. Thus stop believing that meteorites or comets gave birth to celestial bodies and to the craters of these celestial bodies, as this is unfounded and the inversion of reality.

The volcanism on Mars and Venus

(21) Let us now make a stop on Mars and Venus, wich are bigger, but which were in other times comparable to the satellites that we have just studied. On these planets, we find some volcanoes in addition to the numerous craters made before the formation of these volcanoes. Because the mantle increases in thickness and weight as the celestial body is developing, the outer layers become more and more isolated from the internal heat and crack. This is what forms the faults which make it easier for gases to evacuate. When this happens on a celestial body, it is thus the end of the steady formation of these explosive craters and the beginning of a quieter volcanism which, however, is of the same nature.

(22) Whether on Earth or on other planets, volcanoes are produced by gas, and by the lava following these gases via their conduits. So, you might say, why wouldn't gases and lava continue to flow through the conduct in the center of a crater, until they gradually form a massive volcano? I answer that indeed this happens, but very rarely; because the mantle moves under the contractions which eventually destroy the chimneys. A volcano can't last eternally for that reason; and the new ones that are created appear all along the faults. However, some of the original gas and lava conduits still remained on Mars and Venus, giving rise to immense volcanic mountains. Why are these volcanoes so gigantic? Because some active volcanoes, scattered here and there around a celestial body are sufficient to evacuate all the gases that run under the mantle of this celestial body. These volcanoes are thus continuously active. As a result, they generate enormous basaltic massifs.

The terrestrial volcanism

(23) On Earth where volcanoes are more numerous (we will see why), there can't be huge volcanoes, because their very high number prevents their growth. Besides, and contrary to what scholars assert, it isn't the heat from the core that brings the lava up to the surface of the ground. No, what makes it go back up is, the pressure applied on this lava both by the weight of the water, the continent's weight, and by the gases which accumulate in pockets till they create escape routes, preferably along the ridges. And in their ascent, they drag the lava with them. But if the Earth's mantle had three thousand kilometers in thickness, as it is claimed by geologists, do you think the lava could go up, in a curtain, over thousands kilometers in length to form the long ridges in the bottom of the sea? Furthermore, could this lava remain fluid all the way to the surface? In order to remain fluid over such a distance, it would have to go up a hundred times faster then lightning! This is not the case.

(24) After gas eruptions and when the pressures or depressions have vanished, the lava eventually flows slowly over the ground, then decreases further until it stops or forms a lake in the mouth of the volcano. Such a lake may very well remain, because the thin mantle allows the heat from the core to be felt permanently to the surface of the ground. The lake of lava is thus one more testimony proving that the terrestrial mantle can't exceed thirty kilometers, otherwise the lava couldn't remain fluid on the surface. If it later solidifies and blocks the chimney, then the long volcanic process starts again. That's why we must always consider a recent and extinct volcano as a volcano whose gases are preparing to make a new eruption.

The fire belt along the Pacific ocean

(25) We will further confirm that the mantle is thin, and that its consistency is like that of a shell which limits its pressure on the magma. If thus a shock breaks this shell into two parts, the weight of these two caps will be felt at once on the magma, and will generate a tremendous volcanism along this break. This is what happened with the arrival of the Moon, because the shock broke the terrestrial shell in two almost equal parts, as follows:

The line of fracture forming the Pacific ring of fire
55 – The line of fracture forming the ring of fire

(26) By equipping ourselves with a small globe and an atlas showing the volcanoes which were active in historical times, we first notice that the Pacific ocean covers almost half of the globe, and that it is surrounded by a belt of ancient volcanoes among which many are still active. Why does this alignment of volcanoes goes around the globe, if not because these volcanoes appeared on a line of fracture which cut the terrestrial shell in two parts? The figure clearly shows what happened when the Moon struck the Earth iron against iron. We notice that the shock made the Earth leap forward. This was enough to fracture the mantle; because the front part of it was pushed by the core, while due to inertia, the back part tended to stay in position. There was thus an extreme tension which made the crust yield as shown in the figure.

(27) This fault, huge and continuous, which probably opened down to the core, is not to be confused with the shallower faults due to shrinkages. For here, as soon as the shock occured, almost all the gases and all the magma of the Earth were engulfed in this fracture, thereby forming a ring of fire around the Pacific basin. But this clash, which occurred at the end of the secondary, also shows us that the huge volcanic chains which resulted from it were highly cooled and seized by the last glacial period. This generated the magnificent mountains that we observe along the line of fracture, as well as the alignments of small or long islands that we observe on the western side of the basin.

(28) Here I draw your attention, because if the mantle had not the small thickness that we evoked, but instead three thousand kilometers like the children learn it, these gases which emanate from the magma would make no difference between the faults (comparable to crevices) and the rest of the mantle. They would come out anywhere, and could not constitute any alignment of volcanoes, and even less the one which traveled around the globe! Because by putting your finger on this volcanic line bordering the Pacific basin, we go around the Earth without lifting a finger. Indeed, starting from the Aleutian Islands for example, we see that this line continues along the Rocky Mountains, travels through Central America, then along the Andes Cordillera to Tierra del Fuego, joins the Antarctica peninsula, continues up to mount Erebus, then goes back up along the western side of the basin (which has become more fragmented) and joins the Aleutian Islands. This is why, I am telling you, all these volcanoes which form such obvious belt around the basin did not come here to freshen their feet, but because they appeared together along this gigantic fault that could only have occurred by a tremendous shock with another celestial body. Be convinced.

(29) If on the day of the collision with the Moon we had been, from space, the eyewitnesses of what happened, then we would have seen emerge a real line of fire around the globe, and thousands of small luminous spots on the scene of the impact, in the middle of the ocean. These luminous spots were also due to the fast ascent of the lava. Without alignment this time, they became so many volcanoes at first and then small islands which populate the Pacific Ocean today. A continent was thus engulfed at the same time by the crushing, the ploughing, the grinding and by the shock waves provoked by the contact of the Moon. This is certain, because it is impossible that the shrinkages of the ground could not have given birth to a continent on half of the globe. Until the end of the secondary, there was thus a continent there. The small islands scattered here and there, without order, are the resurgences of this continent and the testimony of its former existence.

(30) Today shown by the mountainous ranges, as well as the strings of islands and the belt of fire bordering the Pacific basin, this huge line of fracture is the evident proof that the Moon was indeed intercepted by the Earth and that the thicknesses of the terrestrial mantle and the Moon are indeed those that I have explained, otherwise this line of fracture couldn't exist.

(31) On Mars, it is the same. Because of the shock with the unknown planet, the crust of Mars fractured. And the fault probably reaches deep into the core of this celestial body. For the same reasons, we must also find small faults on the Moon, and folds made by compression. These faults and folds must be crossing the cirques, and even fracture the mountain ranges. However, on the Moon, things were a little different, partly because of the thickness of its mantle (which has become entirely crust) is significantly thinner than the terrestrial mantle; and on the other hand, because due to its cooling, this mantle was already completely rigid and solidly bonded to the core when the shock took place.

(32) In addition, and because of the planet's work, we understand that this fault produced by the Moon presents a continual seismic activity. Because, when the volcanoes which are here and there are momentarily interrupted, the pressure of the gases which accumulate again creates chambers (cavities) which eventually cause the surrounding layers to give way. And the Earth trembles. If we add to this the continual opening of the ocean trenches lining the basin, no one can be surprised by the frequent seismic activity of these regions of the globe. But in truth, these are only tiny phenomena at the scale of the Earth.

*

(33) The shock provoked by the Moon also explains the origin of the eccentric orbit of the Moon around the Earth, and the eccentric orbit of the Earth around the Sun. It also explains the fact that there are no continents in the Pacific basin, and why the beings of the end of the secondary suddenly disappeared. Can you also imagine what must have happened at the antipodes of the shock, which seems to be the Sahara? If there were mountains, they flattened by compression! No life was thus able to resist to such a shock.

(34) Besides that, this image of the contact of the Moon with the Earth shows without ambiguity the thickness of the mantles, the origin of the belt of fire, volcanism, earthquakes, the interception of the Moon; and confirms the upheaval of the solar family, the eras, the explosion of the Sun's atmosphere, and also that the latter was once like Jupiter. Truthfully, it is the whole teaching of the Son of man which is confirmed as the explanations go on, because you go from evidence to evidence which open your eyes. Nothing can escape you and nobody can deceive you any more, because you see the celestial things in their entirety or in their detail, as you wish.

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