(1) The time it took to form solar family was much longer than the one which passed by since the Sun lit up. The planets have modestly evolved since then. That's why we read through them what has been the evolution of volcanism which begins right after their birth. This reading is very important to complete the comprehension of formations. Because it is impossible to know what is the volcanic activity by the only observations we make of it on earth. Let's examine our planets in their initial context, when they were still active and warm. In this first order (before the illumination of the Sun), we would find likely Pluto, the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, and the Earth; then the unknown planet, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Through these celestial bodies, we can also consider the evolution of a single one, each being as a sequence of what it was in time.
(2) Concerning the only volcanism, on the ground of the Moon and Mercury we only find craters. On the ground of Mars and Venus, there are similar craters and volcanoes. On Earth, craters are almost all erased by the successive shrinkages of the surface layers, remain only the extinct volcanoes or active. On Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune which have never ceased to raise their temperature, the volcanism is immoderate; the gigantism of their atmosphere proves it formally. These observations oblige us to deduct that the volcanism (which is an eruption of gases, followed or not by magma) takes different aspects according to the period of evolution in which is the celestial body.
(3) We also note that, among all the planets of the Sun, the Earth is credibly the one which has the thickest coat. Indeed, the internal temperature of the planetstar has become too hot to let increase the thickness of the materials which compose their coat. This temperature, highly raised, tends on the contrary to transform these materials into gases, and therefore to decrease the thickness of their coat. On Earth, it is different; because the internal heat, less high, still allows production of the materials of the coat. It means that the volcanism is one thing until it and after it (on side of planetstars), it's something else and more intense.
(4) Thus let's begin the study of volcanism with the formation of craters. After what we shall know what's the situation is on our Earth. Let's remind at first that before the illumination of the Sun, all the celestial bodies were more or less active. They had magma consequently and were all provided with an atmosphere formed by the gases eruptions. As it was explained, the coat of the satellite develops itself gradually right after the birth of the core. At first thin, it thickens in time. And for as long as it is hot and supple, it follows easily the growth of the core. Only its surface exposed to the cold is provided with a slim crust which cracks and let appear some faults. Now, whatever the thickness and the consistency of the coat, gases produced in the magma, gain in pressure and come out on surface one way or another by leaving their imprints. This is what begins the volcanism.
(5) The production of gases and their eruption are thus an affair of ebullition. And we only have to observe the Moon so that it appears to us. However, these ebullitions are at the measure of the celestial body, meaning extremely slow to our eyes. It was also the same for Mercury and for all celestial bodies when they were small and near the Sun where they quickly developed. On the Moon thus, we note that there are some very big bowl-shaped depressions (called seas) which have little raised edges, bowl-shaped depressions less big and sometimes provided with a central peak, and some smaller ones, devoid from these peaks. We also notice that the bottom of the bowl-shaped depressions is very often covered with solidified lava, and that there are also multitudes of tiny little holes of all sizes made in the dust. We are going to study these formations, as well as the different periods of life of the satellites in which all this occurred.
(6) The coat flexibility and lightness of the small satellites sometimes oppose more difficulties for gases to escape than does the slim crust surface which, full of small cracks, allowing them to pass more freely. The pockets which are forming and leave their imprints after their collapse or bursting, are the result from a slow accumulation of gases under the layers of the coat. To what can this be compared to? If we put a waterproof coverage on the entire surface of a small marsh of which gases would come up, these gases would localize gradually under the cover by forming small round swellings. Supposing that we leave for a while this cover on this marsh, these pockets would eventually merge into a single and immense. This is why you find small, medium, and large craters; but also some very large one, this happen when the pockets manage to unite under the slim and light coat of the satellites at the contact of the magma.
(7) Other example: when we heat up some dough on the fire, we quickly notice the formation of small domes which burst, and then re-form through the same gas duct. Let's enlarge this phenomenon and imagine that we have a vast bowl filled with this dough. If we slowly bring this one at ebullition, outside in winter time, we notice that the surface, quite colder, covers itself with a skin tight. The gases go back up and form domes under this skin, in the style of what we saw with the marsh. These domes eventually burst or only collapse immediately after the gases have escaped through the top of the dome which became refined and tore. It is this example which really shows how happen the formation of the enormous domes of gases on a satellite and bowl-shaped depressions that they leave on the ground after their burst or their collapse.
(8) The more the satellite is small, the more the layers of its coat are thin, hot, supple, light and even lighter because on these small celestial bodies their weightiness is by much inferior than that prevailing on Earth for example. The gases have no difficulty lifting them. If thus at the contact of the magma of these small celestial bodies, there is a formation of a gas pocket (which can have more than hundred kilometers in diameter), while it forms an other one as big a little farther, both can evenually join. In this case, together they will form a single round dome which will stop growing and will be comparable to an inverted bowl on a liquid, but able to reach one thousand kilometers in diameter.
(9) Due to the roundness of a small celestial body, such a pocket in formation will necessarily have a circular base. This one will be a little pronounced but very large vault, containing a large layer of gases whose pressure is low. Such a pocket can't grow infinitely, but will do until the roundness of the satellite opposes to it and stops it. Its dimensions are thus proportional to the circumference of the celestial body and to the maximum allowed by this circumference. This can give very large swellings which, when collapsing, leave a vast circular depression with low edges.
(10) Such gases pockets probably do not burst, but collapse certainly. It is there so because, when all the coat is unstuck from the magma and slowly lifted by the gases, the top of the vault becomes refine and rips as we said, creating a gaping opening. Gases escape then through this opening. And the coat then collapses on the magma. Immediately after this collapse, the lava rushes into the opening and spreads on the bottom of the bowl-shaped depression, and then solidifies. This is what we observe on the Moon.
(11) Subsequently, some much smaller craters can be formed in these large depressions called seas. However the gases will come out more easily outside of these seas whose bottom, compounded of solidified lava, is harder and stiffer than it is elsewhere. It is also because of this solidity that these circular seas are partially surrounded by high mountains. Indeed, their solid edges were used as attachment points to large shrinkages of the warm layers completely cooled during the upheaval. This is what the circular seas are that we observe today on the Moon and on the satellites of the same generation.
(12) The large bowl-shaped depressions of the Moon, which formed during the very hot period, can't have the same aspect as those smaller bowl-shaped depressions appeared later. That is, because growing up, its coat thus became thicker, heavier and stronger. It was thus overall less warm, and the superior layers became firmer over a greater depth. This is a new type of volcanism, because the gases cannot erupt so easily. They are indeed going to concentrate longer under these layers which resist more. To form a dome of hundred kilometers in diameter for example, it will be necessary maybe the double of time that the one they needed to form it when the celestial body was smaller and hotter.
(13) These last domes will be less big but will explode violently this time, leaving long trails in the dust in the neighbourhood of the bowl-shaped depression and in the center of which we shall often notice a central peak. These long trails, starting from certain bowl-shaped depressions, are necessarily resulting from the explosion of a dome. Why is that? Because of the slightest weightiness and of the small circumference of the satellite, rocks being violently thrown away brush against the surface of the ground over great distances. Their projections create whirlwinds in the atmosphere which lift the dust, leaving tracks. They are these tracks that we observe around craters last-born of the Moon today. I remind that these craters formed while the Moon, put into orbit around the Sun, yet would still possessed its atmosphere.
54 – Formation of a crater
(14) This figure illustrates how appeared, on the satellites, the craters of an average size. The gases first localize under the layers of the coat, in contact with the magma, and form a lower pocket in which they increase in pressure. When their pressure can no longer be contained, these gases cross the coat and go back up towards the surface until they meet the superior layers more sealed that they cannot cross. They then accumulate under these last layers and lift them with force. This forms a dome that will eventually burst violently.
(15) Why it sometimes forms a peak in the center of the bowl-shaped depression? When the gases are stopped by the superior layers which resist, their pressure increases. This pressure also has for effect of holding repelled the magma under the coat, on both sides of the duct. There are thus two chambers formed by the gases and connected between them: the superior chamber in the form of vault (under the surface layers) and the lower chamber (under the coat) which holds the magma at distance. So we understand that, right after the superieur chamber's explosion, the magma, repelled until then, rushes into the duct and floods the bowl-shaped depression up till overflow. But when the ascent of lava has faded, this lava still fluid tends to go down again into the duct. And it is at this moment when it is less fluid, that it forms a peak over the duct that it blocks.
(16) That this central peak occurs or that it doesn't occur, the duct gets blocked necessarily. But very often this duct remains in the depth, as well as the lower chamber which collects gases. In that case, these gases will accumulate again in the chamber and the duct, and will begin again the same process in the time. They will borrow the existing passage, will still localize on the surface and will then form a smaller bowl-shaped depression in the precedent ones. These repetitions of the formation of bowl-shaped depressions into each other engender what we call stepped craters, provided or not of a central peak. These steps are the edges of the domes which have successively burst.
(17) These bursts are the main cause of the plentiful dust on the Moon. They are also the origin of many holes made in the dust by the rocks stemming of these bursts which fell back in large quantity. Due to the prevailing lower weightiness which reigns on the satellites, one third of the material of a dome which explodes can be thrown out in space, another third could be sent into orbit and then fall back here and there on the ground, after the last third, composed of bigger bodies, is already fell. This will form small craters for some time, obviously devoid of peak, because the bodies which fall can't come in contact with the magma.
(18) Thus, thanks to the electromagnetic activity of the celestial bodies, we now know the origin of the craters of all dimensions, as well as the periods of the life of the celestial bodies in which they appeared. On the Moon, they have formed before it was intercepted by the Earth and, on Mars or Mercury, before they cooled down in their entire thickness.
(19) The craters being the first aspect of the volcanism, it is suitable to no longer believe that they are due to intense falls of meteorites, as it is taught by those who always take the consequences for the causes! We have just seen that the satellite produces itself the bodies which riddle its ground. Some meteorites from elsewhere can be part of the number, but it's insignificant. No, the large craters having regular edges and flat bottom covered with solidified lava, are always the mark of gas eruptions. In order to be the meteorites which would formed the celestial bodies and on those ones the craters that we observe, they would have had to exist in space in such quantity which is beyond comprehension, and they would have all fell concentrically, on a single point, which would irresistibly have attracted them... What would thus have been this point, and what would have been its composition to have such a power?
(20) On the other hand, on a hard ground, a meteorite cannot make bowl-shaped depressions having regular edges of equal depth if it doesn't fall vertically (concentrically), but only an oblique hole. If we say that they fell on a pasty ground, it's similar. Besides, to form bowl-shaped depressions of several hundreds kilometers in diameter, these meteorites would have had to be colossal. Now, such solid bodies, arriving faster than the flash of lightning, would necessarily have chased away the satellites of the celestial body to which they belonged. Thus stop believing that meteorites or comets gave birth to celestial bodies and to the craters of these celestial bodies, it is unfounded and an inversion of the reality.
(21) Let us now make a stop on Mars and Venus, bigger, but at some other times were comparable to the satellites that we have just studied. On these planets, we find some volcanoes besides the numerous craters made before the formation of these volcanoes. Because the coat increases in thickness and weight as the celestial body is developing, the outer layers become even more isolated from the internal heat and crack. This is what forms the faults which give more ease to evacuate the gases. When this happens on a celestial body, it is thus the end of the steady formation of these explosive craters and the beginning of a quieter volcanism which, however, is of same nature.
(22) Whether on Earth or on other planets, volcanoes are produced by gas, and by the lava following these gases via their ducts. So, will you say, why gases and lava wouldn't continue to borrow the duct in the center of a crater, to gradually form a massive volcano? I reply that indeed this happens, but very rarely; because the coat moves under the contractions which eventually destroy the chimneys. A volcano can't last eternally for that reason; and the new ones taking place appear all along the faults. However, some original ducts of gas and lava still remain on Mars and Venus, and gave huge volcanic mountains. Why are these volcanoes so gigantic? Because some active volcanoes, distributed here and there around a celestial body are sufficient to evacuate all gases running under the coat of this celestial body. These volcanoes are continuously active. Therefore, they generate enormous basaltic massifs.
(23) On Earth where volcanoes are more numerous (we will see why), there can't be very large volcanoes, because their very high number prevents their growth. Besides, and contrary to what scholars assert, it isn't the heat from the core which brings the lava up to the surface of the ground. No, what makes it go back up is, the pressure applied on this lava at once through the water's weight, the continent's weight, and gases which accumulate in pockets till they create escape ways, preferably along the dorsals. And in their ascent, they pull the lava. But if the Earth's coat had three thousand kilometers in thickness, as it is claimed by geologists, do you think the lava could go up, in curtain, over thousands kilometers in length to form the long dorsals in the bottom of the sea? Besides, this lava could remain fluid till the surface? In order to remains fluid on such a distance, it would have to go up hundred times faster then lightning! This is not the case.
(24) After gases eruptions and when the pressures or depressions have vanished, the lava eventually flows slowly to the ground, then still decreases until it stops or forms only a lake in the mouth of the volcano. Such a lake can so very well remain, because the thin coat allows the heat of the core to be felt sustainably till the surface of the ground. The lake of lava is thus one more testimony proving that the terrestrial coat can't exceed thirty kilometers, otherwise the lava couldn't remain fluid at surface. If it solidifies and then blocks the chimney, then the long volcanic process starts again. That's why it is always necessary to consider a recent volcano and extinct as a volcano whose gases are preparing to make a new eruption.
(25) We will further confirm that the coat is thin, and that its consistency is like a shell which limits its pressure on the magma. If thus a shock breaks this shell into two parts, the weight of these two caps will be felt at once on the magma, and will engender a tremendous volcanism along this break. This is what happened with the arrival of the Moon, because the shock broke the terrestrial shell in two almost equal parts, as follows:
55 – The line of fracture forming the ring of fire
(26) By providing us with a small globe and an atlas with the volcanoes which were active in historical times, we notice at first that the Pacific ocean is nearly half of the globe, and is surrounded by a belt of ancient volcanoes among which many are still active. Why this alignment of volcanoes is it around the globe, if it isn't because these volcanoes appeared on a line of fracture which cut the terrestrial shell in two parts? The figure shows clearly what happened when the Moon struck the Earth iron against iron. We note that the shock made the Earth leaped forward. This was enough to fracture the coat; because the front part of it was pushed by the core, while that due to inertia, the back part tended to stay in position. There was thus an extreme tension which made the crust yield as shown in the figure.
(27) This fault, huge and continuous, which probably opened down to the core, is not to be confused with the shallower faults due to shrinkages. For here, as soon after the shock, it's almost all the gases and all the magma of the Earth which have rushed into this gap, thereby forming a ring of fire around the Pacific basin. But this clash, which occurred at the end of the secondary, also shows us that the huge volcanic chains which resulted from it were highly cooled and seized by the last glacial period. This generated the magnificent mountains that we observe along the line of fracture, as well as the alignment of small or long islands that we observe on the western side of the basin.
(28) Here I draw your attention, because if the coat had not this slim thickness that we evoked, but instead three thousand kilometers like the children learn it, these gases which emanate from the magma would make no difference between the faults (comparable to crevices) and the rest of the coat. These gases would come out anywhere, and could not constitute a alignment of volcanoes, and even less the one which traveled around the globe! Placing a finger on this volcanic line which borders the Pacific basin, we go around the Earth without lifting the finger. Indeed, from the Aleutian Islands for example, we see that this line continues along the Rocky Mountains, travels through Central America, and along the Andes Range to Tierra del Fuego, joins the Antarctica peninsula, continues up to mount Erebus, then goes back up throughout the western side of the basin (which was even more fragmented) and finally joined the Aleutian Islands. That is why, I say onto you that, all these volcanoes which form this obvious belt around the basin were not put there to freshen their feet, but because they appeared together along this gigantic fault being able to have occurred only by a tremendous shock with another celestial body. Be convinced.
(29) If the day of the collision with the Moon we had been, in space, the eyewitnesses of what happen, then we would have seen emerge a veritable line of fire around the globe, and thousands of small bright spots on the scene of the impact, in the middle of the ocean. These were bright spots due to a fast ascent of the lava. Without alignment this time, they became volcanoes at first and then small islands after which inhabit the Pacific Ocean today. A continent was thus gobbled up at once by the crushing, ploughing, grinding and by the shock waves provoked by the contact of the Moon. This is certain, because it is impossible that the shrinkages of the ground would have not been able to give birth to a continent on half of the globe. Until the end of the secondary, there was thus a continent there. Small islands sparse here and there, without order, are the resurgences of this continent and the testimony of its former existence.
(30) Today shown by the mountainous ranges, as well as the strings of islands and the belt of fire bordering the Pacific basin, this huge line of fracture is the evident proof that the Moon was well intercepted by the Earth and that the thicknesses of the terrestrial coat and the Moon are indeed those that I have explained, otherwise this line of fracture couldn't exist.
(31) On Mars, it is the same. As a result of the clash with the unknown planet, the crust of Mars fractured. And the fault probably reaches the deep core of this celestial body. For the same reasons, we probably find small faults on the Moon, and folds made by compression. These faults and folds must be crossing the bowl-shaped depressions, and even fracture the mountain ranges. However, on the Moon, things were a little different, partly because of the thickness of its coat (become completely crust) significantly thinner than the terrestrial coat; and on the other hand, because of its cooling, this coat was already completely stiff and solidly bonded to the core when the shock took place.
(32) In addition, and because of the planet's work, we understand that this fault produced by the Moon presents a continual seismic activity. Because, the volcanoes which are here and there are momentarily interrupted, the pressure of gases which accumulate again generate chambers (cavities) which eventually make yield the layers in the surroundings. And the Earth trembles. If we add to this the continual opening of the ocean trenches lining the basin, then no one can be surprised by the frequent seismic activity of these regions of the globe. But in truth, these are only tiny phenomena at the scale of the Earth.
(33) The shock provoked by the Moon also explains the origin of the eccentric orbit of the Moon around the Earth, and the eccentric orbit of the Earth around the Sun. It also explains the fact that there are no continents in the Pacific basin, and why the beings of the end of the secondary suddenly disappeared. Can you also imagine what must have happened at the antipodes of the shock, which seems to be the Sahara? If there were mountains, these flattened by compression! No life was thus able to resist to such a shock.
(34) Besides, the image of the contact of the Moon with the Earth shows with no ambiguity the thickness of the coats, the origin of the belt of fire, the volcanism, the earthquakes, the interception of the Moon; do confirms the upheaval of solar family, the eras, the explosion of the Sun's atmosphere, and also the latter was formerly as Jupiter. Truthfully, it is the whole teaching of the Son of man which confirms itself according to explanations, because you go from evidence to evidence which open you eyes. Nothing can escape you and nobody can deceive you, because you see all celestial things in their whole or in their details, as desired.